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I will definitely be using your company in the future if needed. Lisa kept me at ease also there were no grey areas with great advice. Helana is a great front of house.
My legal matter concerning an application for a Domestic Violence Order was managed by Mr Thomas Allen. I am grateful for the outcome he obtained. Without Mr Allen and his ongoing support, I would be certain of a different result. It has been an extremely stressful period. Mr Allen’s astute ability to liaise on my behalf and his expertise was invaluable and for which I am grateful as I am now able to move forward. Thanking you
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Armstrong Legal and specifically Mr Thomas Allen for representing me in my recent case. At the outset, I would like to thank Mr Allen for the very professional delivery of his legal service. From the first time that I met Mr Allen, I was very impressed with his demeanour and delivery as he made me feel at ease knowing the severity of my case. Mr Allen not only gave me the possible positive outcomes of the case but also the realisation of the worst-case scenario as far as sentencing goes. … I will certainly be recommending Armstrong Legal to any of my friends or family needing representation in criminal matters. Thank you so very much.
Thank you for your representation and help. Fingers crossed for the next step and parole. I just want to say that from the first phone call to your office, your service has been outstanding and have put my mind at ease. I am glad I picked your number to ring.
Thank you Armstrong Legal, the lawyers that have helped over the past 3 years but more importantly, thank you to Thomas Allen for the major part you and Mr Buckland played. Cannot thank you enough. Cheers.
Hi all. I would like to thank Ms Lisa Riley for all her help with my legal issues this past month. It was the most harrowing experience of my life and thanks to her expertise, professionalism and knowledge of the law, I came out almost unscathed. I have no hesitation in recommending Lisa Riley and Armstrong Legal if you need help. The service is amazing and the cost was very minimal for the great outcome. Thank you Lisa for helping me in the most difficult time.
I just want to thank you from the bottom of my heart. My whole life I was thrown away, you made me feel like I did mean something. I could not have asked for a better lawyer. Your compassion and love for your job is inspiring. Your upfront and honesty were muchly appreciated, you are a beautiful person. Thank you for not giving up on me and thank you for all the work you put in. I wish you all the best for the future and I will be recommending you to everyone I know. You're amazing!!!!
I just wanted to thank you for representing me on Monday, I was overjoyed & relieved with the outcome. I don’t think it could have gone any better. All the best, I hope you got to celebrate this one instead after work, you forever made a difference in my life.
I know I thanked you before we parted company but please allow me to reiterate in writing my sincere deepest thanks for defending me in court today. … Armstrong Legal certainly has a great Lawyer you are a credit to the company and I'm quite sure you will secure a very successful future! … My Kindest Regards and Thanks
Throughout Angela has been the consummate professional. She maintained a calm, yet strong demeanour remained informative and completely open in her communication and took complete ownership of the situation. We felt confident we finally had an advocate to steer us out of the nightmare we were in, and she did so with great respect and sincerity. I cannot speak more highly of Angela. She has literally rescued our family from what looked very much like a hopeless future.
Words can’t describe how grateful I am to Trudie Cameron being my solicitor and to Andrew Tiedt presenting my case in the court. They both have been very supportive and amazingly professional and effective. I’ve got an absolutely fantastic outcome I couldn’t even dream about.
Soon after meeting Andrew I knew he was the solicitor I wanted to handle my matter. He immediately sprang into action which brought me stability and hope during a tumultuous time in my life. Andrew was never afraid to give me straight answers to my tough questions which is a true mark of integrity. He is clearly at ease in the court environment and I believe his calm and measured demeanour went a long way to helping me secure the best result from my day in court. I would certainly recommend you approach Andrew if you need assistance.
"Andrew Tiedt was very professional and considerate to personal circumstances and gave sound advice that resulted in the best outcome possible. Highly recommended."
In criminal matters, it is common for witnesses to be called to give evidence orally. Witnesses may be called to give evidence about something they saw, heard or otherwise perceived in order to assist the court in determining the guilt or innocence of an accused person, to resolve a factual dispute or even in relation to the sentencing of a person who has been found guilty of an offence. While the vast majority of witnesses are adults, child witnesses can give evidence in criminal proceedings too. However, they can only do so if they are both a ‘competent’ and a ‘compellable’ witness.
There are a number of legislative provisions and procedural practices that govern the way in which children give evidence. There are additional procedures and safeguards in place to protect children who are alleged to be victims of crimes. As well as being the alleged victims of offending, children can become witnesses in order to provide evidence in relation to an alleged criminal matter that does not involve them.
Competence and compellability
Pursuant to section 13 of the Evidence Act 1995, all persons are presumed to be ‘competent’ to give evidence unless they do not have the capacity to understand a question about a fact or do not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood about a fact (because of their age, an intellectual disability or any other reason).
A person will not be competent to give evidence if that incapacity cannot be overcome, for example, through the use of breaks, simple language when asking questions or through the use of a different method of giving evidence. Further, it is important to note that a person may be competent to give evidence about some facts but not others.
Sworn and unsworn evidence
There is a further distinction that may arise in relation to child witnesses. This distinction is the distinction between competency to give sworn evidence, and competency to give unsworn evidence. Where a person does not have the capacity to understand that they are under an obligation to tell the truth when giving evidence, they may give unsworn evidence provided the court has told the person that:
- It is important to tell the truth;
- They may be asked questions they do not know or cannot remember the answer to and if this occurs they should tell the court such; and
- They may be asked questions that suggest certain things are true or untrue and they should agree with statements that are true and should feel no pressure to agree to statements that are untrue.
Reliability of evidence of child witnesses
Many people presume that the evidence of a child is not as reliable as the evidence of an adult. However, the law does not recognise this as a strict rule. Indeed, a judge presiding over a trial must not do or say anything to suggest to the jury that, generally speaking, evidence of children is unreliable or less reliable than that of adults.
This is not to say that the evidence of a child must be considered to be reliable, just that it is not necessarily less reliable just because it is the evidence of the child. The reliability of a child’s evidence can be assessed in the same way as any other evidence including by comparing it to any prior consistent or inconsistent statements, considering any corroborating evidence, the answers themselves or the demeanour of the witness.
Practical measures for child witnesses
A number of legislative provisions have been implemented to reduce the stress and difficulty that may be associated with children giving evidence. The court will be closed to the public anytime a child gives evidence. This means only the Magistrate or Judge, the accused person, court staff, a support person or the victim’s family may be present in court. A range of suppression or non-publication orders also apply which prohibit the name or information that may identify a child who is an alleged victim or witness from being published.
A child witness can give evidence from a remote room within the court precinct, rather than from in the courtroom itself. The child will appear by way of a video link and will be able to see the magistrate or judge and the lawyers at the bar table. They won’t usually be able to see the accused person.
A child who is an alleged victim of a sexual offence may be able to give their evidence by way of pre-recorded evidence. The pre-recorded evidence will be taken in the courtroom, often with the child appearing from a remote room. The pre-record will usually be carried out months in advance of any trial, and much closer in time to the date of any alleged offending than if the child had to wait for the trial to commence in order to give evidence.
In some cases, a witness intermediary will be utilised by the court. A witness intermediary is a professional who can speak with a child witness, assist them in understanding the court process and make recommendations to the Judge and legal representatives to make it easier for the child to give evidence. Recommendations may include asking counsel to remove their robes and wigs, suggesting regular breaks, requiring counsel to ask questions in a certain way or to use certain words.
If you require legal advice or representation in any legal matter, please contact Armstrong Legal.
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