ACT Criminal Law
National Criminal Law
NSW Criminal Law
QLD Criminal Law
VIC Criminal Law
WA Criminal Law
With a cramped time frame, she did in 3 days what another firm dilly-dallied for 7 months. Lisa kept me informed. Helena made me feel comfortable in a sticky situation.
I will definitely be using your company in the future if needed. Lisa kept me at ease also there were no grey areas with great advice. Helana is a great front of house.
My legal matter concerning an application for a Domestic Violence Order was managed by Mr Thomas Allen. I am grateful for the outcome he obtained. Without Mr Allen and his ongoing support, I would be certain of a different result. It has been an extremely stressful period. Mr Allen’s astute ability to liaise on my behalf and his expertise was invaluable and for which I am grateful as I am now able to move forward. Thanking you
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Armstrong Legal and specifically Mr Thomas Allen for representing me in my recent case. At the outset, I would like to thank Mr Allen for the very professional delivery of his legal service. From the first time that I met Mr Allen, I was very impressed with his demeanour and delivery as he made me feel at ease knowing the severity of my case. Mr Allen not only gave me the possible positive outcomes of the case but also the realisation of the worst-case scenario as far as sentencing goes. … I will certainly be recommending Armstrong Legal to any of my friends or family needing representation in criminal matters. Thank you so very much.
Thank you for your representation and help. Fingers crossed for the next step and parole. I just want to say that from the first phone call to your office, your service has been outstanding and have put my mind at ease. I am glad I picked your number to ring.
Thank you Armstrong Legal, the lawyers that have helped over the past 3 years but more importantly, thank you to Thomas Allen for the major part you and Mr Buckland played. Cannot thank you enough. Cheers.
Hi all. I would like to thank Ms Lisa Riley for all her help with my legal issues this past month. It was the most harrowing experience of my life and thanks to her expertise, professionalism and knowledge of the law, I came out almost unscathed. I have no hesitation in recommending Lisa Riley and Armstrong Legal if you need help. The service is amazing and the cost was very minimal for the great outcome. Thank you Lisa for helping me in the most difficult time.
I just want to thank you from the bottom of my heart. My whole life I was thrown away, you made me feel like I did mean something. I could not have asked for a better lawyer. Your compassion and love for your job is inspiring. Your upfront and honesty were muchly appreciated, you are a beautiful person. Thank you for not giving up on me and thank you for all the work you put in. I wish you all the best for the future and I will be recommending you to everyone I know. You're amazing!!!!
I just wanted to thank you for representing me on Monday, I was overjoyed & relieved with the outcome. I don’t think it could have gone any better. All the best, I hope you got to celebrate this one instead after work, you forever made a difference in my life.
I know I thanked you before we parted company but please allow me to reiterate in writing my sincere deepest thanks for defending me in court today. … Armstrong Legal certainly has a great Lawyer you are a credit to the company and I'm quite sure you will secure a very successful future! … My Kindest Regards and Thanks
Throughout Angela has been the consummate professional. She maintained a calm, yet strong demeanour remained informative and completely open in her communication and took complete ownership of the situation. We felt confident we finally had an advocate to steer us out of the nightmare we were in, and she did so with great respect and sincerity. I cannot speak more highly of Angela. She has literally rescued our family from what looked very much like a hopeless future.
Words can’t describe how grateful I am to Trudie Cameron being my solicitor and to Andrew Tiedt presenting my case in the court. They both have been very supportive and amazingly professional and effective. I’ve got an absolutely fantastic outcome I couldn’t even dream about.
Soon after meeting Andrew I knew he was the solicitor I wanted to handle my matter. He immediately sprang into action which brought me stability and hope during a tumultuous time in my life. Andrew was never afraid to give me straight answers to my tough questions which is a true mark of integrity. He is clearly at ease in the court environment and I believe his calm and measured demeanour went a long way to helping me secure the best result from my day in court. I would certainly recommend you approach Andrew if you need assistance.
"Andrew Tiedt was very professional and considerate to personal circumstances and gave sound advice that resulted in the best outcome possible. Highly recommended."
In Australia, offences committed on an aircraft, towards passengers or crew members, or directed towards an aircraft are viewed very seriously. Offences relating to air safety are contained in the Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991. Under this Act, the definition of an aircraft includes not only commercial aircraft but Commonwealth and defence aircraft. Offences of this nature are Commonwealth offences, that is, they are consistent throughout the states and territories of Australia and will be prosecuted by the Commonwealth DPP. It is indicative of how seriously these matters are treated by Parliament that many of them are strictly indictable offences. That means, they must be finalised in the District or Supreme Courts.
Aircraft offences: Assaulting crew
In Australia, the offence of assaulting crew members on an air vessel carries a maximum penalty of ten years imprisonment. If the assault committed affects that crew member’s performance of their duties on board, then the maximum penalty rises to twenty years.
The offence of assaulting crew is set out in section 20A of the Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991 which states: “A person commits an offence if:
- (a) the person is on board an aircraft; and
- (b) the Aircraft is a Division 3 aircraft; and
- (c) the person assaults, threatens with violence or intimidates another person; and the other person is a member of the crew of the aircraft.”
The aggravated offence is contained in section 21 of the same Act, which states that the person must not do the above “in a manner that results in:
- (a) an interference with the member’s performance of functions or duties connected with the operation of the aircraft; or
- (b) a lessening of the member’s ability to perform those functions or duties.”
What Actions Might Constitute “Assaulting Crew?”
- Section 3 of the same Act defines a Division 3 aircraft. It includes aircrafts that are intended or likely to be engaged in prescribed flights, within Australia and internationally. It also includes Commonwealth aircraft, defence aircrafts and foreign aircraft in Australia or intended to end their journey in Australia.
- The slightest touch may constitute assault, however, Police would usually not charge a person unless there is a significant degree of force applied or threats of violence.
- Assault covers punching, hitting and kicking, as well as threatening to hurt another person. Spitting is another form of assault and is treated very seriously.
Aircraft offences: Dangerous goods
In Australia, the offence of possessing dangerous goods on an aircraft carries a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment. If the goods possessed are likely to endanger a person’s life or cause serious harm, then the maximum penalty rises to fourteen years imprisonment.
The offence of ‘dangerous goods’ is contained in section 23 of the Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991 which states: “a person must not: “A person commits an offence if:
- (a) carry or place dangerous goods on board a Division 3 aircraft;
- (b) deliver dangerous goods to anyone else with the intention of placing the goods on board such an aircraft;
- (c) have dangerous goods in his or her possession on board such an aircraft.”
The aggravated offence is contained in section 23A of the Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991 which states that an offence is committed if a person does the above actions and “the act constituting the offence is likely to endanger a person’s life or cause serious harm to a person.”
What Actions Might Constitute “Possessing Dangerous Goods”
- Section 3 of the same Act defines a Division 3 aircraft. It includes aircraft that are intended or likely to be engaged in prescribed flights, within Australia and internationally. It also includes Commonwealth aircraft, defence aircraft and foreign aircraft in Australia or intended to end their journey in Australia.
- The actions which give rise to this section is drafted very broadly. Essentially, it will cover anyone who brings such items onto an aircraft, or causes, at some point along the line, the item to be within the aircraft.
- A ‘dangerous good’ is defined in Section 3 of the same act. It contains two categories of items:
- Firearms, ammunition, weapons and explosive substances; and
- Any substance or thing that may endanger the safety of an aircraft or of people on board an aircraft because of its nature and/or condition.
- Most airport or aircraft carrier websites now contain detailed information as to what they consider a dangerous good. These lists are non-exhaustive but include items such as: aerosols, camping stoves, liquid fuel containers, carbon dioxide, e-Cigarettes, electronic devices powered by batteries.
Possible Defences For Possessing Dangerous Goods
Section 23(2) provides for possible defences to these sections. It is a defence if:-
- The owner or operator of the aircraft had given consent. That consent must be given when the owner or operator had full knowledge of the nature of the goods.
- Permission is previously granted pursuant to the Air Navigation Act 1920, Aviation Transport Security Act 2004or Civil Aviation Act 1988 or their corresponding regulations.
- If the aircraft is a Commonwealth aircraft, the person doing the act: is a person appointed under the Public Service Act 1999; an officer under the authority of the Commonwealth; or a person acting in accordance with instructions of such an officer or person, and that person is acting in the performance of his or her duties.
- If the aircraft is a defence aircraft, the person doing the act is a member of the Defence Force or a person acting in accordance with the instructions of such a member, and that person is acting in the performance of his or her duties.
Aircraft offences: Endangering safety of aircraft
In Australia, the offence of endangering the safety of an aircraft carries a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment. If the action committed is likely to endanger a person’s life or cause serious harm, then the maximum penalty rises to fourteen years imprisonment.
The offence of ‘endangering the safety of aircraft’ is contained in section 22 of the Crimes (Aviation) Act 1991 which states: “a person who, while onboard a Division 3 aircraft does an act, reckless as to whether the act will endanger the safety of the aircraft, is guilty of an offence.”
The aggravated offence is contained in section 22A of the same act which states that an offence is committed if a person does the above and “the act constituting the offence is likely to endanger a person’s life or cause serious harm to a person.”
What Actions Might Constitute ‘Endangering The Safety Of Aircraft’?
- Section 3 of the same act defines a Division 3 aircraft. It includes aircrafts that are intended or likely to be engaged in prescribed flights, within Australia and internationally. It also includes Commonwealth aircrafts, defence aircrafts and foreign aircrafts in Australia or intended to end their journey in Australia.
- A person can be considered to have performed an act ‘recklessly’ if they entertained the possibility that some kind of injury or harm would occur as a result of their actions. It does not need to be the specific injury or harm that eventuated.
- These sections are very broadly drafted and only requires ‘an act’ that would endanger the safety of the aircraft. This will cover any act, for example, assaulting crew members or passengers, distracting crew members or making a scene would be sufficient to fulfil this element.
- There is no requirement for that act to have actually endangered the safety of the aircraft, as long as it was reasonably possible to have endangered the safety of the aircraft.
If you require legal advice or representation in any legal matter, please contact Armstrong Legal.
In Australia, there is no legal age at which a child can be left home alone; parental judgment is relied…
Unlawful assembly is an offence which involves a group of people intending to disturb the peace. The offence is designed…
Child abandonment is generally when a parent, guardian or someone with a parental responsibility for a child deserts that child…
201 Elizabeth Street
Sydney NSW 2000
575 Bourke Street
Melbourne VIC 3000
91 North Quay
Brisbane QLD 4000
Nishi, 2 Phillip Law Street
Canberra ACT 2601
22 St Georges Terrace Perth